2.1 Expression identification

[type of data: normalized heading—expression identifier (non-literal typed)]

Any change in form (e.g., from alpha-numeric notation to spoken word) or intellectual conventions (e.g., translation from one language to another), in fact, any change in intellectual or artistic content, results in the production of a new expression. Each of the following examples represent expressions of the same work:

  • variant texts incorporating revisions or updates to an earlier text
  • abridgements or enlargements of an existing text
  • the addition of parts (i.e., a line of music on the score indicating the contributions by a particular instrument, voice, or section of instruments or voices) or an accompaniment to a musical composition
  • translations from one language to another, including a dubbed or subtitled version of a film, or a continuing resource issued in several different language editions
  • musical transcriptions and arrangements
  • two audio performances of the same musical or textual work, as long as the performance is not filmed, thereby adding a visual component
  • additions, such as the addition of illustrations, the addition of commentary, or the addition of biographical or critical material

Identify the expression by appending the following to the work identifier, if applicable:

a. If the expression is a translation, append the language of the expression (if there is only one). If there is more than one language, let the description of the expression (below) bring this out instead.
b. If the expression has become well-known under a particular name, such as 'King James version,' append the name of the expression.
c. Append the date or span of dates the expression was first published, distributed or released.
d. For musical works, append the medium of performance and/or the key, if different from the original medium of performance and/or key of the work. If the nature of the modification is too complex to include in the expression identifier, append the term 'arr.' For expressions of musical works that are performances, append the name of the performer and the date of performance.

It is not necessary to append normalized expression identification to the work identifier for every type of expression; many of the types of modications that lead to expression change are too complex to include in an identifier and much of the data that identifies a particular expression will consist of transcribed and composed data elements that form part of the expression description.

Expressions of expressions [Expression to expression relationship]

It is possible for an expression to be modified in such a way as to create a new expression related to the previous one. A translation can be made of a particular revised edition. A musical performance can be of a particular arrangement of a musical work. It is also possible to have an expression that consists of a previously existing expression with appendages to that previously existing expression, such as commentary, illustrations and the like. If this relationship (expression of an expression) is not already clear from the data elements related to expression (see below), it may be indicated by means of a note either composed by the cataloger or transcribed from an item being cataloged and placed in quotation marks.

If the expression is already contained in the catalog, use the expression record already created.

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